We welcome original and review papers in the areas, but not be limited to; X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure measurements on Yb and Sm demonstrate the partial reduction to 2+ valence state for both elements, Yb reduction being more pronounced. It is suggested that carbon exists in liquid iron as a small, positive, interstitial ion and sulphur as a weakly negative, substitutional ion. Overall, high temperature gradients and, in particular, decarburization due to carbon diffusion processes were identified to be the major driving force for significant changes in surface micro-roughness and microstructural properties. However, few quantitative results have been reported regarding process yield and correlations with product quality. MN 5.41 wt% (Kim et al. 0000010628 00000 n 0000004294 00000 n 0000008867 00000 n 0000002014 00000 n The AIN solubility product in liquid iron containing manganese up to 22 mass% were measured by the metal-nitride-gas equilibration technique in the temperature range from 1 823 to 1 873 K. Manganese significantly increased the AIN solubility product in liquid iron primarily due to the large effect of manganese on the nitrogen solubility. Thermodynamic analysis of oxygen solubility in Fe - Ni melts containing vanadium shows that the reducing ability of vanadium declines slightly with increase in Ni content in the melt to 20%, and then rises significantly. We attribute these anomalies found in meteorites to the sole oldhamite control on REE budget. After each alloy addition, a new level of equilibrium, graphite crucible and iron was added to decrease nickel, tube and quenched rapidly in water within 2, samples were carefully cut for the chemical analysis. N Carbon Solubility in Liquid Iron Containing V, Mo and Ni Do-Hyeong Kim, Min-Kyu Paek, Tae-Jung Kim, Seung-Yeon Won and Jong-Jin Pak+ Department of Materials Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791, Korea Liquid iron alloys containing V, Mo, and Ni can be produced by the carbothermic reduction of spent catalysts used in petrochemical 0000007926 00000 n Elucidation of the most important factors influencing material synthesis, and the relationships between them, provides opportunities for gains in industrial-scale synthesis. As mentioned earlier, strong agitation of melt by, an induction furnace resulted in a fast attainment of, equilibrium carbon solubility in liquid iron. <]/Prev 928163>> 0000013024 00000 n The difference was negligible indicating, that metal samples did not react with air during sampling, melts was measured as a function of alloying element, additions of vanadium and molybdenum, while it decreased, with the addition of nickel. Maximum solubility of carbon in ferrite is low (0.02%C). 0000105179 00000 n 0000009459 00000 n 0000002479 00000 n 0000041468 00000 n The size and number of inclusions in the melt did not change with time after Ti addition. The remelted layers were analyzed using roughness measurements, white light interferometry, X-ray diffractometry, electron backscatter diffraction, glow discharge emission spectroscopy, and nanoindentation hardness measurements. By rationally tuning the cores and the shells in such nanoparticles (NPs), a range of materials with tailorable properties can be produced which are of interest for a wide variety of applications. Ni, however, is a non-reactive element and difficult to be remove. calibrator for the thermal EMF of R-type thermocouple. A high atomic carbon dilution, only 3% of the input atoms being C, is a common feature across many systems. [64]). Mn,Al The maximum solubility of carbon is 0.1% at 1493 degrees centigrade.. Fe(δ-Iron) possesses very low carbon content and thereby it possesses low hardness and that indicates it is a highly ductile phase. After melting the, iron under the Ar atmosphere, the temperature of the melt, frequency noise on the temperature reading was avoided by, grounding the circuit of the thermocouple. 0000032556 00000 n 0000005588 00000 n The values of, respectively from the slope of the lines in the temperature, evaluated for these parameters because it was found to be, In order to predict the carbon solubility in multi-, component iron alloys containing vanadium, molybdenum, and nickel, the simultaneous effect of alloying components, on carbon should be considered. cantly increased the carbon solubility in liquid iron alloys while nickel decreased the carbon solubility. 157 0 obj <>stream Also, the data are not, available at higher temperatures while the smelting reduction, of spent catalysts requires a high process temperature near or, In the present study, the carbon solubility in Fe, dependency of vanadium effect on carbon solubility in liquid, iron was also measured in the temperature range from 1823, determine the interaction parameters of vanadium, molybde-, num and nickel on carbon at its saturation in liquid iron, alloys. Furthermore, the effect of Fe addition on the carbon, oxygen and nitrogen contents is studied. The, carbon content was analyzed by the carbon, (CS-800, Eltra, Neuss, Germany). Using, thermodynamic parameters determined in the present study, the carbon solubility in Fe, (Received October 16, 2013; Accepted December 20, 2013; Published February 25, 2014), The spent catalysts used in petrochemical industry contain. The solubility of carbon in Fe–C–V ternary melt was determined in hexa-compartment graphite crucibles at temperatures ranging from 1623 K to 1773 K. The solubility data can be expressed asXC=0.083+6.57×10−5T−(0.492−5.60×10−4T)XV.The activity interaction coefficients of vanadium on carbon were estimated with the solubility data as follows:εCV=2.39×104⁄T−22.9.ρCV=1.86×103⁄T−1.28.ρC,VC=3.84×103⁄T−2.98.The second order interaction coefficients, ρVC and ρV,CV estimated by integrating the Gibbs-Duhem equation, are expressed asρVC=8.81×103⁄T−16.1.ρV,CV=−1.32×104⁄T−18.0.The lattice ratio as a concentration variable, proposed by J. Chipman, was used to correlate the experimental results of the present work and of those on other eleven carbon saturated iron base ternary systems in the literature. This work investigates the influence of multi-step laser polishing on microstructural properties of the remelted surface layer of tool steel H11. Thermodynamics of carbon in these alloy melts is important for re, temperature dependency of carbon solubility in Fe, previous experimental results were thermodynamically analyzed using Lupis, order interaction parameters of vanadium, molybdenum and nickel on carbon at carbon saturated condition in liquid iron alloys. 5.41 wt% (Kim et al. (iv) Cementite, Iron Carbide, Fe 3 C: It is an interstitial intermediate compound having a fixed carbon content of 6.67%. In particular the carbon concentration was more than halved within the remelted layer. - characterization of new energy conversion and storage inorganic materials Liquid iron alloys containing V, Mo, and Ni can be produced by the carbothermic reduction of spent catalysts used in petrochemical industry.

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